Theory Manual Version 3.4
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Subsubsection 4.2.2.1: Elastic Shell Up Subsection 4.2.2: Shells with front and back face nodal displacements Subsubsection 4.2.2.3: Shell on top of solid element

#### 4.2.2.2 External work of surface forces

We assume that surface forces are applied on the shell front face (). Therefore, the external work of surface forces has the form In other words, the treatment of surface forces on a shell becomes identical to the treatment of surface forces on the face of a solid. No special treatment is needed.
Subsubsection 4.2.2.1: Elastic Shell Up Subsection 4.2.2: Shells with front and back face nodal displacements Subsubsection 4.2.2.3: Shell on top of solid element