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2.7 Triphasic and Multiphasic Materials
Multiphasic materials represent an extension of the biphasic-solute material, where the mixture may contain a multitude of solutes. These solutes may be either electrically charged (ionized) or neutral. Similarly, the solid matrix may either carry electrical charge (a fixed charge density) or be neutral. A triphasic material is a special case of a multiphasic material, having two solutes that carry opposite charges. Triphasic and multiphasic materials may be used to model porous deformable biological tissues whose solid matrix may be charged and whose interstitial fluid may contain any number of charged or neutral solutes. When mixture constituents are electrically charged, the response of the tissue to various loading conditions may encompass a range of mechano-electrochemical phenomena, including permeation, diffusion, osmosis, streaming potentials and streaming currents. To better understand multiphasic materials, the reader is encouraged to review the descriptions of biphasic (Section 2.5↑) and biphasic-solute materials (Section 2.6↑).