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8.6.6 Electrical Grounding
If a multiphasic mixture containing ions is completely surrounded by ion-impermeant boundaries it is necessary to ground the mixture to prevent unconstrained fluctuations of the electric potential. Grounding is performed by prescribing the effective concentration of one or more ions, at a location inside the mixture or on one of its boundaries corresponding to the location of the grounding electrode. The choice of ion(s) to constrain may be guided by the type of grounding electrode and the reference electrolyte bath in which it is inserted.