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Theory Manual Version 3.6
 Subsection 7.9.7: Other Rigid Connectors Up Subsection 7.9.7: Other Rigid Connectors Subsubsection 7.9.7.2: Damper Between Rigid Bodies 

7.9.7.1 Spring Between Rigid Bodies

Consider a spring between points on rigid bodies and . The spring force is oriented along , where We may write Then, the spring force acting on body is where is the spring constant. It is understood that the special case produces . We do not need to use the augmented Lagrangian method here, therefore , where Since the spring may freely pivot about its insertion point, we let . Thus, and the virtual work associated with this spring is The linearization of may be expressed as where the stiffness matrix is with
 Subsection 7.9.7: Other Rigid Connectors Up Subsection 7.9.7: Other Rigid Connectors Subsubsection 7.9.7.2: Damper Between Rigid Bodies