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Theory Manual Version 3.6
 Subsection 5.2.9: Perfect Osmometer Equilibrium Osmotic Pressure Up Section 5.2: Compressible Materials Subsection 5.2.11: Porous Neo-Hookean Material 

5.2.10 Large Poisson's Ratio Ligament

This material captures the transversely isotropic behavior of tendon and ligaments while enforcing a large Poisson's ratio. The material utilizes a three part strain energy equation: where: The transversely isotropic strain energy takes into account the behavior of the collagen fibers. The isotropic strain energy takes into account the mechanical contribution of the extrafibrillar matrix and provides the majority of support when loaded transverse to the fiber direction. The variables , and are material parameters controlling the stress-strain response of the material.
The volumetric strain energy acts as a penalty term which enforces a Poisson's ratio based on user selection of the parameters and . The variable acts as a penalty parameter. Raising will cause the prescribed Poisson's ratio to be enforced. The Poisson's ratio in question is given by the following function:
 Subsection 5.2.9: Perfect Osmometer Equilibrium Osmotic Pressure Up Section 5.2: Compressible Materials Subsection 5.2.11: Porous Neo-Hookean Material